Stephan Spencer is an author of The Art of SEO published in October 2009 (second edition published in March 2012) by O’Reilly and co-authored by Eric Enge, Rand Fishkin and Jessie Stricchiola. Stephan is the founder of Netconcepts. Netconcepts started out as a web design and marketing agency, but over time morphed into a leading SEO firm. Stephan, and Netconcepts, had been heavy into the science of SEO since 1999. Netconcepts was acquired in January 2010 by paid and organic search software/services agency Covario. Covario is one of those rare companies to have made it onto the Inc 500 list two years in a row — in 2009 and now again in 2010. Stephan is the inventor of the automated pay-for-performance natural search technology platform GravityStream, now re-branded as Organic Search Optimizer.